Important scientists

 

P

 George Palade (1912 - 2008)  cell biologist  organelles, vacuole (with de Duve, Claude)

 Paracelsus

     see Philippus von Hohenheim

 Charles Parsons

(1854 - 1931)  engineer  inventor of steam turbine

 Blaise Pascal

(1623 - 1662)  mathematician/physicist  hydraulic fluids, Pascal's triangle

 Louis Pasteur

(1822 - 1895)  microbiologist/chemist  rabies vaccine, Pasteur effect
 Wolfgang Paul (1913 - 1993)  physicist  ion trap (with Dehmelt)

 Wolfgang Pauli

(1900 - 1958)  theoretical physicist  quantum physics, Pauli exclusion principle

 Linus Pauling

(1901 - 1994  chemist/physicist  protein structure - alpha helix and beta sheet

 Ivan Pavlov

(1849 - 1936)  physiologist  digestive system; Pavlov conditioning

 Georg Pawer

(1494 - 1555)  geologist  father of mineralogy Charles Pedersen
 Charles Pedersen (1904 - 1989)  chemist  host-guest chemistry (with Cram, Lehn)
 Arno Penzias (1933 - )  physicist  cosmic microwave background radiation (with Wilson)

 William Perkin

(1838 - 1907)  chemist  discovered aniline dyes
 Martin Perl (1927 - )  physicist  tau lepton, sub-atomic particles
 Jean Perrin (1870 - 1942)  physicist  molecular structure, cathode rays. X-rays

 Max Perutz

(1914 - 2002)  molecular biologist  protein structure, hemoglobin, heme proteins (with Kendrew)
 William Phillips (1948 - )  physicist  laser cooling (with Chu, Cohen-Tannoudji)

 Jacques Piccard

(1922 - 2008)  oceanographer  bathyscape Trieste - bottom of Mariana Trench

 Isaac Pitman

(1813 - 1897)  teacher  invented Pitman shorthand system

 Max Planck

(1858 - 1947)  physicist  proposed quantum theory
 John Polanyi (1929 - )  chemist  crossed molecular beam. chemical reaction (with Herschbach, Lee)
 David Politzer (1949 - )  physicist  asymptotic freedom, gauge theory, quantum chromodynamics (with Gross, Wilczek)
 John Pople (1925 - 2004)  physicist  computational chemistry, CNDO/2, INDO
 George Porter (1920 - 2002)  chemist  fast chemical reactions (with Eigen, Norrish)
 Rodney Porter (1917 - 1985)  biochemist  antibody structure (with Edelman)
 Cecil Powell (1903 - 1969)  physicist  discovered pion, photography of sub-atomic particles
 Fritz Pregl (1869 - 1930)  chemist  combustion analysis, elemental analysis
 Vladimir Prelog (1906 - 1998)  chemist  sterochemistry of enzyme reactions (with Cornforth)

 Joseph Priestley

(1733 - 1804)  philosopher  discovered oxygen (but see also Scheele and Lavoisier)
 Ilya Prigogine (1917 - 2003)  chemist  dissipative structures, complex systems, irreversibility
 Alexander Prokhorov (1916 - 2002)  physicist  first usable maser (with Basov, Townes)
 Stanley Prusiner (1942 - )  biochemist  discovered prions

 Ptolemy

(90 - 168)  early astronomer  measure altitude of stars, Almagest, Geographia
 Edward Purcell (1912 - 1997)  physicist  nuclear magnetic resonance (with Bloch)

 Pythagoras

(570 - 495 BC)  mathematician  Pythagoras' theorem for triangles