Important scientists

 

M

 Ernst Mach

(1838 - 1916)  physicist  speed of sound (Mach number)
 Roderick MacKinnon (1956 - )  biochemist  ion channels, aquaporins, cell membrane (with Agre)
 John Macleod (1876 - 1935)  physiologist  carbohydrate metabolism, insulin (see Banting, Best)

 Marcello Malpighi

(1628 - 1694)  physician  founder of microscopic anatomy and first histologist
 Benoit Mandelbrot (1924 - )  methematician  fractal geometry
 Peter Mansfield (1933 - )  physicist  

 (with Lauterbur)

 Gideon Mantell

(1790 - 1852)  paleontologist  discovered first Iguanodon fossils

 Guglielmo Marconi

(1874 - 1937)  inventor  radio telegraph system (with Braun)
 Rudolph Marcus (1923 - )  chemist  electron transfer

 Geoffrey Marcy

(1954 - )  astronomer  extra-solar planets

 Lynn Margulis

(1938 - )  biologist  origin of eukaryotic organelles

 Othniel Marsh

(1831 - 1899)  paleontologist  first pterosaurs, fossil collector
 Barry Marshall (1951 - )  physician  stomach (peptic) ulcer bacterium Helicobacter pylori
 Toshihide Maskawa (1940 - )  physicist  CP violation, spontaneous symmetry breaking (with Kobayashi)
 Archer Martin (1910 - 2002)  chemist  partition chromatography (with Synge)

 Nevil Maskelyne

(1732 - 1811)  astronomer  longitude, latitude, Earth's density (Schiehallion experiment)

 Lynn Margulis

(1938 - )  biologist  origin of eukaryotic organelles

 Charles Mason

(1728 - 1786)  astronomer  Mason-Dixon Line - see also Dixon
 John Mather (1946 - )  astrophysicist  CMB radiation, black body, anisotropy (with Smoot)

 Drummond Matthews

(1931 - 1997)  geologist  plate tectonics

 Matthew Maury

(1806 - 1873)  oceanographer  developed charts for ocean currents

 James Maxwell

(1831 - 1879)  physicist  electromagnetic theory

 Wilhelm Maybach

(1846 - 1929)  engineer  automobile pioneer (see also Daimler)

 Ernst Mayr

(1904 - 2005)  biologist  evolutionary synthesis

 John McAdam

(1756 - 1836)  engineer  inventor of macadamized road surface

 Barbara McClintock

(1902 - 1992)  geneticist  genetic transposition in maize

 Cyrus McCormick

(1809 - 1884)  inventor  mechanical crop reaper
 Alan MacDiarmid (1927 - 2007)  chemist  conductive polymers (with Heeger, Shirakawa)
 Edwin McMillan (1907 - 1991)  physicist  transuranium elements (with Seaborg)
 Ilya Mechnikov (1845 - 1916)  microbiologist  immunology, phagocytosis, gerontology (with Ehrlich)
 Peter Medawar (1915 - 1987)  zoologist  transplant rejection, acquired immune tolerance (with Burnet)
 Simon van der Meer (1925 - )  physicist  W and Z particles, bosons (with Rubbia)

 Lise Meitner

(1878 - 1968)  physicist  discovered nuclear fission (with Hahn)
 Craig Mello (1960 - )  biochemist  RNA interference (with )

 Gregor Mendel

(1822 - 1884)  geneticist  inheritance of pea plants

 Dmitri Mendeleyev

(1834 - 1907)  chemist  periodic table of elements

 Gerardus Mercator

     see Gerhard Kremer
 Robert Merrifield (1921 - 2006)  biochemist  solid-phase peptide synthesis
 Marin Mersenne (1588 - 1648)  mathematician  length of seconds pendulum
 Otto Meyerhof (1884 - 1951)  biochemist  muscle metabolism, glycolysis (with Hill)
 Hartmut Michel (1948 - )  biochemist  X-ray crystallography, photosynthetic reaction center (with Deisenhofer, Huber)

 John Michell

(1724 - 1793)  geologist  mass of Earth

 Albert Michelson

(1852 - 1931)  physicist  speed of light (see also Edward Morley)

 Thomas Midgley

(1899 - 1944)  chemist  developed tetra-ethyl lead gasoline additive

 Johannes Miescher

(1844 - 1895)  biologist  discovered nucleic acids

 Milutin Milankovitch

(1879 - 1958)  geophysicist  ice ages and climate change

 Stanley Miller

(1930 - 2007)  chemist  origin of life (abiogenesis) (with Urey)
 Robert Millikan (1868 - 1953)  physicist  electron charge, photoelectric effect
 Csar Milstein (1927 - 2002)  immunologist  monoclonal antibodies (with Jerne, Khler)
 George Minot (1885 - 1950)  physician  liver therapy, anemia (with Murphy, Whipple)

 Alfred Mirsky

(1900 - 1974)  biologist  protein structure (with Pauling)
 Peter Mitchell (1920 - 1992)  biochemist  chemiosmosis, ATP synthesis

 Andrija Mohorovicic

(1857 - 1936)  meteorologist  founder of seismology
 Henri Moissan (1852 - 1907)  chemist  isolated fluorine
 Mario Molina (1943 - )  chemist  atmospheric ozone depletion (with Crutzen, Rowland)
 Antonio Moniz (1874 - 1955)  neurologist  brain mapping (with Hess)

 Jacques Monod

(1910 - 1976)  biochemist  feedback, gene expression (with Jacob, Lwoff)
 Luc Montagnier (1932 - )  virologist  retroviruses, HIV (with Barr-Sinoussi)

 Joseph Montgolfier

(1740 - 1810)  papermaker  hot-air balloon (with brother Jacques)
 Stanford Moore (1913 - 1982)  biochemist  ribonuclease (with Anfinsen, Stein)

 Thomas Morgan

(1866 - 1945)  embryologist  genes on chromosomes, heredity

 Edward Morley

(1838 - 1923)  physicist  speed of light (see also Michelson)

 Lawrence Morley

(1920 - )  geophysicist  plate tectonics

 Samuel Morse

(1791 - 1872)  inventor  co-inventor of telegraph system (see also Wheatstone), Morse code

 Henry Moseley

(1887 - 1915)  physicist  Moseley's Law of X-ray spectra, atomic number
 Rudolf Mssbauer (1929 - )  physicist  gamma rays, Mssbauer effect, atomic nucleus (with Hofstadter)
 Nevill Mott (1905 - 1996)  physicist  amorphous semiconductors, amorphous solids (with Anderson, van Vleck)
 Ben Mottelson  (1926 - )  physicist  atomic nucleus (with Bohr, Rainwater)

 Hallam Movius

(1907 - 1987)  archeologist  fossils of Paleolithic period
 Hermann Mller (1890 - 1967)  geneticist  X-rays and mutagenesis
 Karl Mller (1927 - )  physicist  high temperature superconductivity, ceramics (with Bednorz)
 Paul Mller (1899 - 1965)  chemist  DDT, insecticide
 Robert Mulliken (1896 - 1986)  physicist  molecular orbital theory
 Kary Mullis (1944 - )  biochemist  polymerase chain reaction
 Ferid Murad (1936 - )  pharmacologist  nitric oxide signalling, vasodilation (with Furchgott, Ignarro)

 Roderick Murchison

(1792 - 1871)  geologist  Silurian system
 William Murphy (1892 - 1987)  physician  liver therapy, anemia (with Minot, Whipple)

 John Murray

(1841 - 1914)  marine biologist  oceanography
 Joseph Murray (1919 - )  surgeon  organ transplantation (with Thomas)