Important scientists

 

L

 Arthur Lakes

(1844 - 1917)  geologist  fossil collector

 Georges Lamaître

(1894 - 1966)  astronomer  Big Bang theory

 Jean Lamarck

(1744 - 1829)  naturalist  theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics
 Willis Lamb (1913 - 2008)  physicist  hydrogen spectrum, Lamb shift, electron properties (with Kusch)

 Edwin Land

(1909 - 1991)  inventor  Polaroid photography process

 Karl Landsteiner

(1868 - 1943)  physician  discovered ABO blood typing system and agglutinins
 Lev Landau (1908 - 1968)  physicist  quantum mechanics, superfluidity

 Irving Langmuir

(1881 - 1957)  physicist  hydrogen welding, light bulb, surface chemistry

 Pierre-Simon Laplace

(1749 - 1827)  mathematician  Laplace equation, Laplace transform

 Max von Laue

(1879 - 1960)  physicist   founder of X-ray crystallography
 Robert Laughlin (1950 - )  physicist  fractional quantum Hall effect (with Störmer, Tsui)
 Paul Lauterbur (1929 - 2007)  chemist  MRI (with Mansfield)
 Charles Laveran (1845 - 1942)  physician  protozoan diseases, trypanosomes, sleeping sickness

 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier

(1743 - 1794)  chemist  father of modern chemistry, named oxygen and hydrogen

 Ernest Lawrence

(1901 - 1958)  physicist  cyclotron

 Louis Leakey

(1903 - 1972)  anthropologist  primate evolution; see also Mary, Richard, Meave

 Henrietta Leavitt

(1868 - 1921)  astronomer  star intensity measurements; Cepheid variable

 Georges-Louis LeClerc

(1707 - 1788)  naturalist  pre-Darwin evolutionist
 Philip Leder (1934 - )  geneticist  Nirenberg/Leder experiment, genetic code (with Nirenberg)
 Joshua Lederberg (1925 - 2008)  biochemist  bacterial genetics, transduction

 Leon Lederman

(1922 - )  physicist  neutrinos, leptons, muons (with Schwartz, Steinberger)
 David Lee (1931 - )  physicist  superfluidity in helium-3 (with Osheroff, Richardson)
 Tsung-Dao Lee (1926 - )  physicist  statistical mechanics, particle physics, weak interaction (with Yang)
 Yuan Lee (1936 - )  chemist  crossed molecular beam. chemical reaction (with Herschbach, Polanyi)

 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

(1632 - 1723)  biologist  father of microbiology; microscope
 Anthony Leggett (1938 - )  physicist  condensed matter physics, superconductivity, superfluidity (with Abrikosov, Ginsburg)

 Inge Lehmann

(1888 - 1983)  seismologist  Earth's inner core
 Jean-Marie Lehn (1939 - )  chemist  host-guest chemistry (with Cram, Pedersen)

 Gottfried von Leibniz

(1646 - 1716)  mathematician  calculus and binary number system
 Louis Leloir (1906 - 1987)  biochemist  nucleotides, carbohydrate metabolism, renal hypertension
 Philipp Lenard (1862 - 1947)  physicist  cathode rays

 Etienne Lenoir

(1822 - 1900)  engineer  inventor of internal combustion engine (see also Otto)
 Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909 - )  neurologist  growth factors, NGF, EGF (with Cohen)

 Claude Levi-Strauss

(1908 - 2009)  anthropologist  father of social anthropology
 Edward Lewis (1918 - 2004)  geneticist  Drosophila, bithorax complex, complementation, embryo development (with Nüsslein-Volhard, Wieschaus)
 Gilbert Lewis (1941 - )  chemist  Lewis acids and bases, covalent bond

 Richard Lewontin

(1929 - )  geneticist  population genetics

 Justus Liebig

(1803 - 1873)  chemist  discovered nitrogen was a plant nutrient, father of fertilizers

 Willard Libby

(1908 - 1980)  physical chemist  radiocarbon dating

 Andrei Linde

(1948 - )  physicist  inflationary universe theory

 Carl Linne

(1707 - 1778)  biologist  biological classification system; aka Carolus Linnaeus
 Fritz Lipmann (1899 - 1986)  biochemist  coenzyme A

 Hans Lippershey

(1570 - 1619)  lensmaker  inventor of telescope
 Gabriel Lippmann (1845 - 1921)  physicist  colour photography, interference, Lippmann plate
 William Lipscomb (1919 - )  chemist  boron compounds, chemical bond

 Joseph Lister

(1827 - 1912)  surgeon  first user of antiseptic surgery procedures
 Otto Loewi (1873 - 1961)  pharmacologist  neurotransmission, acetylcholine (with Dale)
 Hendrik Lorentz (1853 - 1928)  physicist  spectroscopy, Zeeman effect (with Zeeman)

 Konrad Lorenz

(1903 - 1989)  zoologist  ethology (with von Fisch, Tinbergen), scientific concept of cuteness
 James Lovelock (1919 - )  futurologist  Gaia hypothesis, biosphere

 Percival Lowell

(1855 - 1916)  astronomer  suggested Pluto existed

 Louis Lumiere

(1862 - 1954)  physicist  inventor of motion-picture camera and projector (with brother Auguste)
 Salvador Luria (1912 - 1991)  microbiologist  antibiotic resistance, mutation, phage (with Delbruck, Hershey)
 André Lwoff (1902 - 1994)  microbiologist  feedback, gene expression (with Jacob, Monod)

 Charles Lyell

(1797 - 1875)  geologist  uniformitarianism (slow movements of Earth's crust)
 Feodor Lynen (1911 - 1979)  biochemist  cholesterol metabolism, fatty acid metabolism (with Bloch)

 Trofim Lysenko

(1898 - 1976)  agronomist  theory of environmentally acquired inheritance (incorrect!)